Termite Prevention and Control

The global economic impact of termites is estimated to be at $40 billion annually. Subterranean termites are responsible for about 80% the total economic impact (Rust and Su 2012). Your home is a large investment. Termite prevention and control should be a priority and incorporated into your general home maintenance plan, which may include an annual renewal inspection by a trained and licensed termite inspector.

Termites generally require a pest management professional for control, but there are many things that you can do to prevent infestations. This guide is intended to help you make an informed choice on the best termite protection for you and contains the following information:

  • Summary of Termite Types and Methods of Control
    • What is at risk of termite damage in my home?
  • One Reason that Termites are Difficult to Control: The Colony
  • Termite Identification
    • How to submit a termite sample for identification
  • Termite Prevention
  • TERMITE TYPES, EVIDENCE OF INFESTATION, AND CONTROL
    • Dampwood Termites
    • Drywood Termites
    • Subterranean Termites
    • Special Reference to Formosan Subterranean Termites
    • Conehead Termites
Where termites can be found in homes.
Figure 1 contains a summary of where termites might be found in a structure and a brief description of control options.

Table 1. Summary of control methods for subterranean termites, drywood termites, and wood-decay fungi.

Summary of control methods for subterranean termites, drywood termites and wood decay fungi.

What is at risk of termite damage in my home?

Termites have a unique ability to digest cellulose, which is one of the most abundant materials on Earth. Cellulose can be found in wood and paper products. Thus, termites can damage structural timbers such as wooden studs, other framing material, and wooden trim such as baseboards and crown molding (Figure 2).

Termite damage on a door frame.
Figure 2. Termite damage on a door frame. Door frames are common access points. Doors often sit on expansion joints that allow subterranean termites to find their way in.

Termites also can damage the contents of homes, including cabinetry, furniture, books, and stored items (Figure 3).

 Book with subterranean termite damage
Figure 3. Book with subterranean termite damage. Notice mud on inside cover.

Termites are known to damage non-cellulosic material as well. They can easily tunnel through construction elements such as rigid foam board insulation and spray foam insulation (Figure 4).

subterranean termite mud tubes emerging from behind spray foam insulation installed over floor joists in crawlspace
Figure 4. Arrows denote subterranean termite mud tubes emerging from behind spray foam insulation installed over floor joists in crawlspace.

Be aware that many pest control companies will not place a warranty on homes with spray foam insulation (Figure 5).

spray foam insulation that obscures inspections and duct work that makes this space inaccessible for inspections
Figure 5. Spray foam insulation that obscures inspections and duct work that makes this space inaccessible for inspections.

An example of a consumer notice published by a state agency on why spray foam can be excluded from warranties can be found here (http://agr.georgia.gov/Data/Sites/1/media/ag_plantindustry/structural_pest_control/structural_pest_control_commission/files/Notice-18-04-Spray-Foam-Insulation-and-Pest-Management.pdf) . In brief, spray foam can create a situation where thorough inspections and effective termite treatment cannot be conducted.

One Reason that Termites are Difficult to Control: The Colony

Termites live in colonies that can contain hundreds to millions of individuals, depending on the species. With some termites, such as the Formosan subterranean termites, the colony can cover over an acre.

The colony contains different castes (i.e., forms): workers, soldiers, and reproductive (Figures 18, 26,42 ):

  • Workers are the most numerous and do the damage in the colony with their chewing mouthparts. They have been called “white ants” because of their cream-colored appearance. They are about 1/8” in length.
  • Soldiers have darkened (i.e., sclerotized) heads and make up a much smaller percentage of the colony. They defend the colony and have important functions in maintaining the balance of the caste in a colony. They are about 1/8” in length.
  • “Swarmers” are a winged reproductive form, also called alates. Alates with wings are about ¼ to 3/8 inch in length and are the most helpful form for termite identification, followed by soldiers, then workers. Swarmers are only present during the spring and possibly fall.

Termite Identification

The most important part of termite control is obtaining a correct identification. Treatments can be drastically different and costly. It is important to know the difference between groups of termites, as well as correctly identifying termites from ants (Figure 6).

characteristics that separate swarming termites from swarming ants. Most people can see the waist on an ant
Figure 6. The characteristics that separate swarming termites from swarming ants. Most people can see the waist on an ant.

Free termite identification. The termite researchers at the University of Florida Ft. Lauderdale Research and Education Center will identify your termites for free! Follow the directions at this link to submit a sample: https://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/termites-in-florida/send-samples/. They maintain a termite distribution map for Florida: https://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/termites-in-florida/termite-distribution/ . They are in the process of collecting information from other states.

Many states offer identification services through Extension. Fees are usually nominal compared to the cost of damage to your home. Click on your state at this link to begin the search: https://nifa.usda.gov/land-grant-colleges-and-universities-partner-website-directory?state=All&type=Extension

Some known insect identification clinics:

How to submit a termite sample for identification

If you plan to submit termites for identification, please place as many termites as you can collect in a small, tightly sealed container of rubbing or 70% isopropyl alcohol (Figures 7a, b, c). The winged swarmers and soldiers are best for identification. Workers are the most numerous in the colony, but the most difficult to use in identification.

Place termite sample in a vial with rubbing or 70% isopropyl alcohol. Make sure the vial does not leak.
Figure 7a. Place termite sample in a vial with rubbing or 70% isopropyl alcohol. Make sure the vial does not leak.
Place samples in box that will protect leak-proof vials or containers.
Figure 7b. Place samples in box that will protect leak-proof vials or containers.
Boxes can be of all shapes and sizes, as long as they protect the sample.
Figure 7c. Boxes can be of all shapes and sizes, as long as they protect the sample.

Do NOT mail termites in a plastic bag placed in an envelope because important characteristics are crushed during delivery (Figure 8). If you plan to mail the sample, place the container in a box.

Please include the following information: Name, how best to contact you (e.g., email, phone number) date, location (address) collected, where collected (i.e., inside or outside home, door or window framing, wooden studs, etc.). Some insect identification laboratories have fillable forms with questions that can aid in identification. See example: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/SR/SR02200.pdf

Submitting pictures of termite damage can be helpful, but generally insect identification requires a sample. The vast majority of photographs submitted do not include the characteristics needed for identification and are not clear enough.

Do NOT mail samples in envelopes, even padded envelopes, as samples are crushed
Figure 8. Do NOT mail samples in envelopes, even padded envelopes, as samples are crushed.

Termite Prevention

Homeowners can help prevent termite infestations by implementing good home maintenance practices. Keys to termite prevention include minimizing moisture, minimizing food sources, and making your home easier to inspect. Examples:

  • Eliminate wood-to-ground contact (Figure 9).
  • Remove wooden debris from property such as lumber and branches.
Example of wood-to-ground contact
Figure 9. Example of wood-to-ground contact. Other examples in homes that may have wood-to-ground contact include piers, posts, attached fences, decks. In this picture, the part of the wooden stair that is on the concrete pad may gain slightly more protection, but termites can still find the stairs via the gap against the wall.

What you can do to prevent termites, continued:

  • Stack firewood away from your home or any structure you want to protect.
  • Keep an inspection space of at least 6 inches from the bottom of wall sidings and the soil or mulch line (Figure 10).
    • Inspection spaces allow termite tubes to be detected (Figure 11).
Building codes in many states require at least a 6” inspection space at the time of construction.
Figure 10. Building codes in many states require at least a 6” inspection space at the time of construction. It is important to maintain this inspection space and not hide it with mulch. When inspection spaces are obscured by mulch or other landscape plants, subterranean termites can access structures.
Termite tube that was detected on outside foundation wall
Figure 11. Termite tube that was detected on outside foundation wall that had an inspection space.

What you can do to prevent termites, continued:

  • Ensure that water runs from the structure, not toward it.
  • Direct A/C drainage lines away from your house.
  • Fix leaks.
  • Direct irrigation heads away from walls (Figure 12).
  • Install gutters to manage the flow of water away from your home (Figure 13).
  • Do not place or store items like rain barrels, compost bins, or other items that hold moisture at ground level within 2 feet of the foundation of your home.
Irrigation head improperly directed
Figure 12. Irrigation head improperly directed, resulting in walls being watered. Wet walls create a conducive condition that will allow termites to thrive.
Splash block to divert water from gutter away from home.
Figure 13. Splash block to divert water from gutter away from home.

What you can do to prevent termites, continued:

  • Landscape plants should be placed at least 2 feet away from exterior walls (Figure 14).
    • Account for future growth.
    • Improper plant placement will create conducive conditions that may void termite warranties (Figure 15a, b).
  • Avoid using wooden landscape timbers for edging.
Inspection space
Figure 14. This home has maintained an excellent inspection space between the siding and mulch. Landscape plants are also positioned far enough away from the outside foundation wall that can decrease moisture close to the home and account for future growth. Moisture is a conducive condition that can void some termite warranties.
Improper plant placement and poor gutter placement.
Improper plant placement and poor gutter placement.
Figure 15 a, b. Improper plant placement and poor gutter placement. This newly planted hibiscus is one foot away from the home, but the branches already almost touching the wall.

What you can do to prevent termites, continued:

  • Keep soffits in good repair and screen vents to help prevent termite swarmers and other pests from entering attics.
  • Trim tree and shrub branches away from walls and roofs (Figure 16).
    • Branches that touch the roof of a structure can allow subterranean termites to use it as a bridge and access structures (Figure 17).
Branches are cut away from the home
Figure 16. YES! Branches are cut away from the home to eliminate access.
The branches resting on the roof of this structure
Figure 17. NO! The branches resting on the roof of this structure likely provided access for the Formosan subterranean termites that were found infesting the room below it.

What you can do to prevent termites, continued:

  • Consider contracting the services of a pest control company with experience and certifications in termite control to do an “annual renewal inspection.”
    • An annual renewal inspection is an inspection that is done on a year-to-year basis by someone who should be trained in how to recognize evidence of termites and potential problems. See What You Can Expect During an Inspection for Termites.
    • Some states require additional training to do these types of inspections that is recorded on identification cards as proof of training.
    • Some states separate the annual renewal inspection from an inspection for the purposes of a real estate transaction.

TERMITE TYPES, EVIDENCE OF INFESTATION, AND CONTROL

This section may help you determine what type of termite you have and control options to consider. A summary of control options for common wood-destroying organisms can be found in Table 1. Termite prevention includes an annual inspection by a pest management professional trained in the identification and control of termites and other wood-destroying organisms. See What You Can Expect During an Inspection for Termites.

Dampwood Termites

  • Require a wet (i.e., free water) environment. Often found in trees.
  • Signs of dampwood termites: mix of loose and clumped pellets (Figure 18). Examples of damage (Figure 19) and live dampwood termites (Figure 20) in pictures below.
  • Control: Drying the infested area is usual enough to control dampwoods which may entail fixing roof and water leaks. It is possible to use borate-containing products such as Bora-Care® as the wet wood will enhance the penetration of the product. Caution: Borates are toxic to plants. Do not use on live plants.
  • Zootermopsis spp. are found in the Pacific Northwest. Neotermes spp. can be found in Florida and coastal southwestern states.
Evidence of dampwood termites
Figure 18. Evidence of dampwood termites include a mix of clumped and loose fecal pellets.Photograph by Rudolf H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. Featured Creatures, Florida dampwood termites.
 Dampwood termite damage
Figure 19. Dampwood termite “damage in 4-inch x 8-inch beam removed from a house in Ft. Lauderdale.” Photograph by Rudolf H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. Featured Creatures, Florida dampwood termites.
Examples of live dampwood termites
Figure 20. Examples of live dampwood termites. Photograph by Rudolf H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. Featured Creatures, Florida dampwood termites.

Drywood Termites

Infestations are usually localized and in sound wood. Drywood termite colonies are not connected to the ground, so their galleries do not have mud in them (Figure 21). Galleries are smooth, going across the grain of the wood, and can extend for several feet. Evidence includes 6-sided pellets (Figure 22) that are pushed out of the colony through kickholes that are about the size of a pen tip (Figure 23). Some drywood termites have soldiers with heads that are sometimes referred to as looking like a burnt matchstick. This is called a phragmotic head (Figure 24). Comprehensive information on drywood termites and their control can be found here: http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7440.html

Drywood termite galleries are smooth, going across the grain of the wood
Figure 21. Drywood termite galleries are smooth, going across the grain of the wood and can be several feet long.
Evidence of drywood termites include six-sided fecal pellets
Figure 22. Evidence of drywood termites include six-sided fecal pellets using 20X smartphone magnifier.
Drywood termite “kickhole.”
Figure 23. Drywood termite “kickhole.”
 Example of live drywood termites
Figure 24. Example of live drywood termites. These termites are Cryptotermes brevis, commonly found in furniture.

The most common control methods for drywood termites:

  • Replace infested wood, usually if limited to door or window trim.
  • Remove infested furniture.or other items having termite damage
  • Spot treat with products labeled for drywood termites.
  • Requires thorough inspection to find drywood termites for spot treatments to be successful.
  • Fumigation (Figure 25).
    • Is highly effective.
    • Fumigation is heavily regulated.
    • Requires products that are designated as “restricted use.”
    • California and Florida do the most fumigations in the country.
Fumigation
Figure 25. Fumigation is highly effective against drywood termites. Structures are tented and tightly sealed to hold the fumigant (active ingredient: sulfuryl fluoride). It is critical that no one enter the structure because the gas is highly toxic. Once properly aerated and cleared, using sensitive instrumentation, the home can be entered again.

Subterranean termites

…usually reside in the ground. One of the reasons that subterranean termites are particularly difficult to control is because colony size on average is from a few thousand to several million, covering from a few square feet to over an acre. One study from North Carolina reported that there can be 25 colonies of native subterranean termites per acre of land (Parman et al. 2003). In other studies, Formosan subterranean termite colonies covered between 1 to 1.5 acres. Thus, it is possible to build your home on an entire colony.

Description (Figure 26): Workers are cream colored. They are the damaging form. Soldiers have a darker head with mandibles that protrude forward. Swarmers have wings and can be honey-colored to black, depending on species. Swarming termites emerge during the spring. Sometimes there is a second, smaller swarm during the fall.

Subterranean termite workers, soldier (darken head) and alates with wings. Reticulitermes spp.
Figure 26. Subterranean termite workers, soldier (darken head) and alates with wings. Reticulitermes spp.

Subterranean termites use mud tubes to travel above ground. Mud tubes consist of soil, subterranean termite feces, and partially digested wood and are are strong evidence for subterranean termites . They protect termites from desiccation and possibly predators (Figure 27). Subterranean termites cause feeding damage with the grain of the wood (Figure 28), sometimes only leaving a thin veneer of undamaged wood at the surface, which is why you may see a termite inspector probing and tapping (Figure 29) the surface of baseboard, door frames, and other areas that are common subterranean termite entry points (Figure 30). Subterranean termites can cause serious damage to structural elements such as 2 by 4s (Figure 31a, b).

Subterranean termite mud tubes
Figure 27. Subterranean termite mud tubes on wall and under countertop.
Subterranean termite feeding damage along the grain of the wood
Figure 28, Subterranean termite feeding damage along the grain of the wood.
Probing and sounding door frame and door threshold
Figure 29. Probing and sounding door frame and door threshold during termite inspection exercise at UF Extension program, Pest Management University.
Subterranean termite mud tube at garage door
Figure 30. Subterranean termite mud tube at garage door baseboard and door frame, a common entry point.
Two by fours damaged by subterranean termites
Figure 31a. Two by fours damaged by subterranean termites that were removed from a home.
Subterranean termite damage in a room
Figure 31b. Subterranean termite damage in a room. Termites are blind, soft-bodied insects so they follow guidelines, including wall studs. Arrows denote areas of prominent mud tubes.

Special Reference to Formosan Subterranean Termites

Formosan subterranean termites are an invasive species that is spreading through the U.S. It is part of the top 100 global invasive species list (Global Invasive Species Database 2019, http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/100_worst.php ). The closely related Asian subterranean termite is also spreading. Treatment will be similar to other subterranean termites, but pest control contracts may be written differently if your home is infested with this species. Some states, like Florida, will allow companies to exclude Formosan and Asian subterranean termites from contract warranties. Read your contracts carefully.

These termites notoriously infest trees (Figures 32, 33). If you find these termites in trees, call an experienced pest control company to treat them. You may see the pest control company foam the voids with a registered termiticide or place baits at the base of the tree. Soil drenches with systemic insecticides labeled for applications may also be used.

Tree damaged by Formosan subterranean termites
Figure 32. Tree damaged by Formosan subterranean termites. Cavity filled with mud and carton material.
 Formosan subterranean termite mud tubes on tree
Figure 33. Formosan subterranean termite mud tubes on tree, highlighted in yellow.

Additional resources on the Formosan subterranean termite:

Identification of the Formosan Subterranean Termite https://secure.caes.uga.edu/extension/publications/files/pdf/C%20868_3.PDF

Summary of best management practices for subterranean termite prevention include:

  • Move items out from the garage and other storage areas periodically and look for mud tubes.
  • Regular inspections by someone trained in inspecting for termites.
  • Following good building construction practices.
    • Avoid wood-to-ground contact.
    • Avoid creating hidden access by burying exterior wall coverings with soil or mulch.
    • Keep an inspection space that is at least 6” from the soil line to any exterior wall covering.
    • Make sure that the slope of the land around your home allows water to flow away from your home, not toward it.
  • Eliminate moisture and other conducive conditions, such as planting too close to outside foundation walls or irrigation directed toward walls.
  • Eliminate debris and hidden access.

Common methods of subterranean termite control:

  • There are two times that a home can be protected from subterranean termites
    • At the time of construction, often called “pre-construction” in the pest control industry.
    • After construction, called”post-construction” or “remedial treatments” in the pest control industry.
  • The methods of control are similar whether in the pre or new construction phase or post-construction.

Soil termiticides

  • Application of liquid soil termiticides are still the most common method of termite control during pre-construction and post-construction. The amount of termiticide applied will vary by area to be treated, product used, and soil type.
  • The applicator must have knowledge of building construction and equipment to apply the quantity of termiticide that may be required to treat your home.
  • Sometimes drilling concrete slabs of concrete block walls is required.
  • All soil termiticides registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must meet performance standards in “Product Performance Test Guidelines OPPTS 810.3600 Structural Treatments” (https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPPT-2009-0150-0009)
  • In the pest control industry, you may hear of liquid termiticides falling into two (2) categories: Repellent and non-repellent chemistries. Describing products in this way may not be technically accurate because at some point, as concentrations increase, any product can become “repellent.” However, you may hear these terms when talking with pest management professionals.
    • Examples of products that are “non-repellent” contain fipronil (Termidor®, Taurus®), imidacloprid (Premise®, Dominion®), and chlorantraniliprole (Atriset®).
    • Examples of products that are “repellent” contain bifenthrin (Bifen I/T®, Talstar®), permethrin (Dragnet™ SFR).

How soil termiticides work: Termites can either contact the soil termiticide or ingest treated soil during tunneling. In recent years, “non-repellent” termiticides have gained favor in the market. Subterranean termites tend to enter soil treated with “non-repellent” termiticides more readily than soil treated with “repellent” termiticides, allowing for greater exposure, and ultimately death, of the exposed termites.

  • The performance of soil termiticides over time is dependent on many factors, including putting out the correct amount, soil type, environmental and conditions.
  • If the treated soil around your home is disturbed by construction, pets or wildlife digging in the area, or a washing rain such as may be experienced during a hurricane, be aware that those areas may require another treatment.

What you may see your pest management professional do. After your pest management professional inspects your home to determine where the subterranean termites are entering, you may see them:

Trench around the perimeter of your home (Figure 34) in preparation to treat around your home.

Trenching before termiticide application
Figure 34. Trenching so that the termiticide can be applied into the trench according to the product label rate to cut off subterranean termite access from the outside.

They may also drill the slab foundation to get the termiticide to areas that would otherwise be inaccessible (Figure 35a, b).

Down-drilling the slab
Figure 35a. Down-drilling the slab so that termiticide can be injected under the slab and cut off subterranean termite access.
Angle-drilling the slab
Figure 35b. Angle-drilling the slab. Another method to inject termiticide under the slab. Your pest management professional must understand building construction in order to know that the drill will emerge under the slab.

Treating the trench (Figure 36) and drill holes.

Treating the trench
Figure 36. Applying the correct amount into the trench and drill holes requires that the pest management professional know how much termiticide is being sprayed at the end of the wand. They should have a rough idea of how many gallons per minute is being sprayed.

Your pest management professional many need to use additional methods to ensure coverage of the termiticide such as rodding into the trench and foaming wall voids. If you have questions about the treatment, you should feel free to ask.

Baits

  • Termite baits have been approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since the mid-1990’s.
  • Examples of EPA registered baits are: Sentricon® that contains the active ingredient novaflumuron and Trelona® that contains the active ingredient novaluron.
  • How baits work: Monitoring stations with cartridges containing a cellulose based material impregnated with an active ingredient are placed in the ground at regular intervals around a home, in areas of known termite activity, and where conducive conditions (i.e., moisture) occur. Termites must find and feed on cellulosic material containing the toxicant.
  • Termite colonies can be eliminated with baits. If there are no termites in the area of the home, the home is no longer at risk.
  • The active ingredient in baits are in a class called “insect growth regulators” and delivered in a way that is specific to subterranean termites. These qualities place baits in an “environmentally-friendly” category.
  • Termite baits can be effective in homes that contain construction that is difficult to treat with liquid termiticides.
  • Some states allow baits to be use in “new construction” instead of soil termiticides.

What you may see your pest management professional do:

Termite bait placement
Figure 37. Pest management professionals deciding on where and how to drill the hole for the bait.
Termite bait installed
Figure 38. The installed bait housing.

Wood treatments

  • Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate is a common active ingredient used in borate products to protect wood against termites and wood-decay fungi.
  • Wood treatments for termites are usually only done during the new construction phase.
  • Wooden timbers are sprayed with the borate solution and can remain stable for the life of the lumber when protected from weather.
  • Examples of borate products are Bora-Care® and Tim-Bor®.
  • How it works: Termites must find the treated wooden members of your home and ingest a toxic dose.
    • Conehead (Nasutitermes corniger) and related termites DO NOT respond to borates, so borates are not a recommended standalone treatment. However, borates can be effective as an additional treatment in combination with another method of control.

What you may see. Most new home buyers will not see this phase of the treatment. A pest management professional is called by the builder when the framing elements are installed and construction is at the “dried-in” phase. The pest management professional may opt to include a dye marker because the borate solution is clear. The label requires that the wooden members be treated to a minimum height of two feet (Figure 39).

Borate treated wall
Figure 39. Borate treated wall with a dye marker that shows where the treatment was applied.

One of the challenges of a borate treatment is that framing and other wooden elements can be moved or added during the construction process and after the pest management professional is called. Unless the builder calls the pest management professional back to treat the modifications, neither the home buyer nor pest management professional will know that some portions of the structure are not treated (Figure 30).

Borated treated and untreated wooden elements
Figure 40. It seems that some wooden elements are treated, and a wall framing unit is untreated based on the dye marker.

Conehead termites

The conehead termites also have been called “tree termites.” They are a particularly voracious invasive termite that is currently limited to portions of Broward County in south Florida but may exist elsewhere. Please familiarize yourself with the pictures below and help limit the spread of this invasive termite. Do not attempt to self-treat.

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services is leading an eradication effort that has been highly successful. The original site in Dania, FL, has been clear of conehead termites for one year, but diligent surveillance continues.

Homeowners in Florida can help in surveillance and eradication efforts by reporting this invasive termite if you suspect it is in your neighborhood. Please contact: 1-888-397-1517 For more information: https://www.freshfromflorida.com/Consumer-Resources/Health-and-Safety/Protect-Your-Home-from-Pests/Termites/Conehead-Termite-Program

Conehead termite soldiers
Figure 41. Conehead termite soldiers with snout-like projection mixed with worker termites. The snout-like projection can shoot out a sticky fluid as a defensive mechanism.
Conehead swarmers with dark wings
Figure 42. Conehead swarmers with dark wings.
Conehead nest
Figure 43. Conehead nest at base of tree. Nests can occur almost anywhere.
Conehead damage
Figure 44. Conehead termites can infest anything made of cellulose including wood and paper.

In Conclusion

There are ~2,750 species of termites, globally. Forty-five species have been found in the U.S. Most of these termites are not harmful to homes or their contents. If you suspect that you have a termite problem, call a professional pest manager who has experience in termites and other wood-destroying organisms.

You may find it beneficial to use more than one termite control method in conjunction with regular inspections, and good building and home maintenance practices in your effort to keep your home termite-free.

References

Global Invasive Species Database (2019). Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/100_worst.php on 18-07-2019.

Parman, V. and E. Vargo. 2008. Population Density, Species Abundance, and Breeding Structure of Subterranean Termite Colonies in and Around Infested Houses in Central North Carolina. J. Econ. Entomol. 101: 1349–1359. (https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/101.4.1349; accessed July 18, 2019)

Rust, M. and N.-Y. Su. 2012. Managing Social Insects of Urban Importance. Annual Review of Entomology 57:355-375. (https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120710-100634; accessed July 18, 2019)

Scheffrahn, R. and N.-Y. Su. Florida Dampwood Termites, EENY-122. Reviewed: December 2017. https://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/termites/neotermes.html

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the Crop Protection and Pest Management Extension Implementation Project, grant no. 2017-70006-27149/project accession no. 1013962 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. We also thank the pest management professionals who generously shared their expertise: Bryce Hamilton, Linda Prentice, James Sneed. July 18, 2019.

Authors

By F. M. Oi1, J. Davis2, J. McConnell3, J. Corbus4, N. Nelson5, and M. Atkinson6.

1University of Florida, Entomology and Nematology Dept, Gainesville, FL 32611
2Sumter and Hernando County Extension Director, 7620 FL-471 #2, Bushnell, FL 33513
3Bay County Extension, Commercial Horticulture/Residential Horticulture, 2728 E. 14th Street, Panama City, FL 32401-5022

4Washington and Holmes County Extension, Family & Consumer Sciences, 1424 Jackson Avenue, Suite A, Chipley, FL 32428

5Manatee County Extension, Family & Consumer Sciences, 1303 17th Street West, Palmetto, FL 34221

6Manatee County Extension, environmental horticulture, 1303 17th Street West, Palmetto, FL 34221

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